List of accidents and disasters by death toll

This is a list of accidents and disasters by death toll. It shows the number of fatalities associated with various explosions, structural fires, flood disasters, coal mine disasters, and other notable accidents caused by negligence connected to improper architecture, planning, construction, design, and more. Purposeful disasters, such as military or terrorist attacks, are omitted; those events can be found at List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll.

While all of the listed accidents caused immediately massive numbers of lives lost, further widespread deaths were connected to many of these incidents, often the result of prolonged or lingering effects of the initial catastrophe. This was the case particularly in such cases as exposure to contaminated air, toxic chemicals or radiation, some years later due to lung damage, cancer, etc. Some numbers in the table below reflect both immediate and delayed deaths related to accidents, while many do not.

Engineering

Explosions

Deaths Date Incident
20,000 30 May 1626 Wanggongchang Explosion in Beijing, China in the Wanggongchang Gunpowder Factory destroys part of the city and kills 20,000 people[1]
3,000 18 August 1769 A lightning bolt caused the Brescia explosion of a gunpowder depot in Brescia (Italy), destroying one-sixth of the city[2][3]
3,000? 1 November 1948 Boiler and ammunition explosion aboard an unidentified merchant ship evacuating troops of the Republic of China Army from Yingkou, China for Taiwan in early November 1948.[4][disputed – discuss] Other sources suggest this figure is inaccurate.[5]
1,400–2,280 6 March 1862 Ammunition warehouse explodes and kills almost all of Oaxaca brigade, in San Andrés Chalchicomula, Mexico, during the first days of Second French intervention in Mexico[6]
1,950 6 December 1917 Halifax Explosion in Nova Scotia, Canada[7]
1,500 5 June 1941 Smederevo Fortress explosion of stockpiled ammunition at Smederevo Fortress near Belgrade in the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia[8]
256–1,500+ 16 September 1732 Military warehouse explodes and kills up to two-thirds of the population of Campo Maior district of Portalegre, Portugal[9][10]
1,300+ 7 August 1956 Ammunition trucks explode near a railway station in Cali, Colombia[11]
1,200 16 October 1926 Explosion of ammunition on the Chinese troopship Kuang Yuang, near Kiukiang, China[12]
1,121 8 June 1943 Japanese battleship Mutsu, at Hashirajima harbor, 1943 due to magazine explosion; ship sank on 9 June
1,100 27 January 2002 Lagos Armoury Explosion, in Lagos, Nigeria; many deaths were from drowning during the resulting panic
1,082 18 October 1998 Jesse pipeline explosion, near Lagos, Nigeria
1,007 18 November 1918 Ammunition transporter explosion in Hamont, Belgium
1,000+ 31 August 1794 Explosion of a gunpowder factory in Grenelle, France
843 9 July 1917 Propellant explosion of the British dreadnought battleship HMS Vanguard
800 14 April 1944 Bombay Docks Explosion in Bombay, Bombay Presidency, British India
738 26 November 1914 British pre-dreadnought battleship HMS Bulwark destroyed due to a magazine explosion
700 17 August 1989 Iraqi military plant with facilities explode at Al Hillah, Babil, Iraq
621 27 February 1925 Explosion of a dynamite depot in Brazil.[13]
600+ 28 March 1943 Explosion of the Caterina Costa, at port of Naples; over 3000 were also injured
590 3 November 1893 Explosion of dynamite cargo on the steamship Cabo Machichaco, in at the port of Santander, Spain, with more than 2,000 injured.[14]
581 16 April 1947 Texas City disaster in the Port of Texas City; over 5,000 were also injured.
575 4 June 1989 Ufa train disaster in Ufa, Soviet Union.
565 21 September 1921 Oppau explosion at a BASF plant in Germany; possibly as many as 1,500 were killed
542 9 April 1945 SS Charles Henderson ammunition explosion at Bari, Italy; 1,800 injured
508 25 February 1984 A gasoline pipeline exploded in the favela of Vila Sao Jose, Cubatão, Brazil[15][16]
500+ 19 November 1984 San Juanico disaster, in Mexico City, Mexico
372 10 November 1944 Ammunition ship USS Mount Hood exploded at Seeadler Harbor, killing 372 and injuring 371
370+ 27 July 1816 Powder magazine in Negro Fort in Spanish Florida exploded during battle with United States forces.
339 11 September 1905 Japanese battleship Mikasa explosion of magazine (artillery) while at port
322 17 July 1944 Port Chicago disaster at Port Chicago, California, United States
300 (estimate) 25 September 1911 An explosion occurred on the French battleship Liberté
300+ 4 March 2012 Brazzaville arms dump blasts at Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo
296+ 18 March 1937 New London School explosion at New London, Texas, United States
256 18 July 1806 Gunpowder magazine explosion, Birgu, Malta
256 4 June 2015 Gas station explosion in Accra, Ghana
235+ 29 December 2001 Fireworks stand explosion in Lima, Peru. 235 bodies recovered, 144+ taken to hospital due to burns.[17]
234 23 December 2003 PetroChina Chuandongbei natural gas field explosion, Guoqiao, Chongqing, China
233 20 October 1916 Russian battleship Imperatritsa Mariya magazine explosion
230+ 2 July 2010 2010 South Kivu fuel tank explosion in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
220 11 December 1944 Gunpowder explosion on the train doing Japanese military and civilian transportation, Itoman, Okinawa, Japan.[18][better source needed]
220 25 September 2023 Filling station explosion in Berkadzor, Nagorno-Karabakh[19]
219 25 June 2017 Bahawalpur explosion, an oil truck exploded in Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
218 4 August 2020 2020 Beirut explosion, Beirut, Lebanon
217 11 July 1978 Los Alfaques disaster, in Sant Carles de la Ràpita, Spain
207 28 July 1948 1948 BASF tank car explosion, Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Germany; 3,818 were also injured[20]
206 22 April 1992 Gas explosions in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
206 17 September 2015 2015 tanker explosion in Juba, South Sudan[21]
200+ 6 June 1991 Gotera ammunition dump explosion in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Industrial

Deaths Date Incident Location
3,787–16,000 2–3 December 1984 Bhopal disaster Union Carbide (now Dow Chemicals) factory, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
1,549 26 April 1942 Benxihu Colliery explosion China
1,134 24 April 2013 Rana Plaza collapse[22] Dhaka District, Bangladesh
1,099 10 March 1906 Courrières mine disaster Courrières, France
687 15 December 1914 Mitsubishi Hōjō coal mine disaster Kyūshū, Japan
682 9 May 1960 Laobaidong colliery coal dust explosion Datong, China
581 16 April 1947 Texas City disaster Texas City, Texas, U.S.
512 28 August 1899 Sumitomo Besshi bronze mine area, landslide with debris flow disaster Niihama, Shikoku, Japan
500+ 19 November 1984 San Juanico Disaster[23] Mexico City, Mexico
476–1,000 1931 Hawks Nest Tunnel Disaster Gauley Bridge, West Virginia, United States
458 9 November 1963 Mitsui Miike Coal Mine disaster[24] Mitsui Miike, Ōmuta, Fukuoka, Japan
439 14 October 1913 Senghenydd Colliery Disaster Senghenydd, Wales
437 21 January 1960 Coalbrook mining disaster Coalbrook, South Africa
426 6 June 1972 Wankie coal mine disaster Wankie, Rhodesia/Zimbabwe
422 28 November 1914 New Yubari Yūbari, Hokkaidō, Japan
405 20 February 1946 Bergkamen mining disaster Bergkamen, West Germany
388 12 December 1866 Oaks Colliery Barnsley, England
376 21 December 1917 Onoura, Kirino, Kyūshū, Japan
375 28 May 1965 Mine explosion caused by Methane gas[25] Dhanbad Bihar, India
372 27 December 1975 Chasnala mining disaster Sudamdih Colliery Dhanbad, India
365 20 July 1907 Hokoku, Itoda, Kyūshū, Japan
362 6 December 1907 Monongah Mining disaster Monongah, West Virginia, U.S.
344 21 December 1910 Pretoria Pit Disaster Westhoughton, England
319 31 May 1892 Marie ore mine fire Příbram, Austria-Hungary (now Czech Republic)
301 13 May 2014 Soma mine disaster Manisa, Turkey
300+ 9 May 1993 Nambija mine disaster, landslide destroying several mines and buildings Zamora-Chinchipe, Ecuador
299[26] 7 February 1962 Luisenthal mine disaster Saarland, West Germany
290 23 June 1894 Fire and explosion Albion Colliery, Wales
289 11 September 2012 Karachi factory fire Karachi, Pakistan
277 8 September 2008 2008 Shanxi mudslide caused by collapse of a mine landfill[27] Xiangfen, Linfen, Shanxi, China
270 25 January 2019 Brumadinho dam disaster caused by the collapse of a mining dam Brumadinho, Minas Gerais, Brazil
268 11 September 1878 Abercarn colliery disaster Abercarn, Wales
266 22 September 1934 Gresford Disaster Gresford, Wales
263 22 October 1913 Dawson, New Mexico U.S. (first disaster)
263 3 March 1992 Incirharmani, Kozlu, Zonguldak, Turkey
262 8 August 1956 Marcinelle, Belgium
259 13 November 1909 1909 Cherry Mine disaster Cherry, Illinois, U.S.
254 11 November 1937 Kogushi sulfur mine collapse western Gunma, Japan
243 5 August 1909 Onoura, Kirino, Kyūshū, Japan
243 23 December 2003 PetroChina Chuandongbei natural gas field explosion[28] Guoqiao, Kai County, Chongqing, China
239 19 December 1907 Darr Mine Disaster Jacobs Creek, Pennsylvania, U.S.
236 1 June 1965 Chikuho Yamano, Kyūshū, Japan
235 14 June 1894 Larisch's mines (Jan and Františka) Karviná, Austria-Hungary (now Czech Republic)
220 28 March 1965 El Cobre tailing dam and copper mine failure by earthquake Chile
216 19 May 1902 Fraterville Mine disaster Fraterville, Tennessee, U.S.
214 15 February 2005 2005 Sunjiawan mine disaster Sunjiawan, Fuxin, Liaoning, China
210 15 June 1899 Hokoku, Itoda, Kyūshū, Japan
204 16 January 1862 Hartley Colliery Disaster New Hartley, Northumberland, England
202 25 May 1917 Bolevec ammunition factory explosion Pilsen, Bohemia, now in Czech Republic
200+ 1 May 1900 Scofield Mine disaster Scofield, Utah, U.S.
200+ 27 February 1908 Mina Rosita Vieja disaster San Juan de Sabinas, Coahuila, Mexico

Nuclear and radiation

Deaths Date Incident Location
200–6,000 29 September 1957 Mayak nuclear waste storage tank explosion. 270,000 people were exposed to dangerous radiation levels.[29] Chelyabinsk, Soviet Union
100–240 10 October 1957 Windscale fire Windscale, Seascale, Cumbria (now Sellafield), England. [There were no deaths due to deterministic effects (i.e. people receiving a high dose of radiation, rapidly becoming ill, and dying); the 100–240 figure is an estimate of the number of people who died later in life due to cancer caused by radiation from the accident[30]].
95–4,000+[31][32] 26 April 1986 Chernobyl disaster. The official report is 31 immediate deaths, 64 recorded cancer deaths by 2008, and potentially up to, but no more than 4,000 total cancer deaths.[33] Far higher death toll estimates have been made, but are disputed. Pripyat, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union
17 August 2000 – March 2001 Instituto Oncológico Nacional, patients receiving treatment for cancer receive lethal doses of radiation.[34][35] Panama City, Panama
13 1996 1996 San Juan de Dios radiotherapy accident, 114 patients received an overdose of radiation.[36] San José, Costa Rica
11 December 1990 Clinic of Zaragoza radiotherapy accident, (27 patients were injured)[37] Zaragoza, Spain
10 10 August 1985 Soviet submarine K-431 accident, (49 people suffered radiation injuries)[38] near Vladivostok, Russia
10 1974–1976 Columbus radiotherapy accident, 88 injuries[35][39] Columbus, Ohio, United States

Structural collapses

Deaths Date Incident Location
26,000–240,000 8 August 1975 Failure of Banqiao Dam and 60 other dams in Ru River basin.[40] Figure includes subsequent diseases and hunger-related deaths. Zhumadian, China
20,000+ AD 27 Amphitheater collapse Fidenae, Italy
11,300 11 September 2023 2023 Derna dam collapse Derna, Libya
1,800–25,000 11 August 1979 1979 Machchhu dam failure Morbi, India
2,208 31 May 1889 Johnstown Flood Johnstown, Pennsylvania, United States
1,134 24 April 2013 Rana Plaza collapse Savar Upazila, Bangladesh
1,000+ 19 August 1917 Tigra Dam failure Gwalior, India
1,000 12 July 1961 Panshet Dam failure[41] Pune, India
941 3 May 1868 Iruka Lake Dam failure Inuyama, Japan
500–1500 20 September 1807 Eitai Bridge collapse Tokyo, Japan
608 30 April 1802 Puentes dam collapsed flooding Lorca, Spain
502 29 June 1995 Sampoong Department Store collapse Seoul, South Korea
400–600+ 12 March 1928 St. Francis Dam failure Los Angeles County, California, United States
423 2 December 1959 Malpasset Dam failure
356 1 December 1923 Gleno Dam failure Bergamo, Italy
250–434 18 August 2008 Koshi Barrage failure Koshi River, Nepal
270+ 25 January 2019 Failure of tailings dam on Córrego do Feijão iron ore mine[42] Brumadinho, Minas Gerais, Brazil
268 19 July 1985 Val di Stava dam collapse Tesero, Italy
244 11 March 1864 Dale Dike Reservoir dam failure Sheffield, England, United Kingdom
238 10 June 1972 Dam failure caused by 1972 Black Hills flood Rapid City, South Dakota, United States
107–500 1 May 1966 Dam failure[43][44] Vratsa, Bulgaria
226 16 April 1850 Angers Bridge collapse Angers, France
200+ 31 October 2017 Punggye-ri Nuclear Test Site tunnel collapse North Korea
~200 20 January 1980 Collapse of wooden bleachers at Corralejas bullring/stadium[45] Sincelejo, Colombia
169 17 November 1981 Manila Film Center collapse Pasay, Philippines
~160 10 December 2016 Uyo church collapse Uyo, Nigeria
120–180 20 April 1986 Kantale Dam failure Kantale, Sri Lanka
145 10 January 1860 Pemberton Mill collapse Lawrence, Massachusetts, United States
144 9 January 1959 Vega de Tera disaster Ribadelago, Spain
141 30 October 2022 2022 Morbi bridge collapse Morbi, India
140 19 November 1974 Makahali River bridge collapse Baitadi, Nepal
139 16 May 1874 Mill River dam failure Williamsburg, Massachusetts, United States
139 13 September 1976 Apartment building collapse Karachi, Pakistan
135 13 August 1993 Collapse of the Royal Plaza Hotel Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand
128 28 July 1983 Guavio hydroelectric project dam collapse Bogota, Colombia
125 26 February 1972 Buffalo Creek flood Logan County, West Virginia, United States
125 8 November 1984 Rope bridge collapse Munnar, India
120 1 February 1963 Nuns' school chapel collapse Biblian, Ecuador
117 1951 Heiwa Lake Dam failure Kameoka, Japan
115 12 September 2014 2014 Synagogue Church Building Collapse Lagos State, Nigeria
114 17 July 1981 Hyatt Regency walkway collapse Kansas City, Missouri, United States
111 11 September 2015 Mecca crane collapse Masjid al-Haram, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
111 13 August 1935 Dam failure Molare, Italy
108 1951 Taisho Lake Dam failure Ide, Japan
100+ 1 December 2000 Dongguan Mall collapse[46][47] Dongguan, China
100 21 February 1890 Walnut Grove Dam failure Wickenburg, Arizona, United States
100 16 June 1990 Saque Comprehensive College collapse Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Structural fires

Deaths Date Incident Location
2,000–3,000 8 December 1863 Church of the Company Fire Santiago, Chile
~1,700[48] 2 September 1949 Chongqing Waterfront Fire – "9-2 Fire" Chongqing, China
1,670 25 May 1845 Theater fire Canton, China
900 June 1871 Theater fire Shanghai, China
800 30 December 1836 Lehman Theater fire St. Petersburg, Russia
694 18 February 1977 61st Regiment Farm fire Xinjiang, China
658 13 February 1937 Antoung Movie Theater fire Nantong, China
614 26 February 1918 Happy Valley Racecourse fire Hong Kong
602 30 December 1903 Iroquois Theatre fire Chicago, Illinois, United States
600 20 May 1872 Theater fire Tientsin, China
538 23 December 1995 Dayananda Anglo Vedic private school fire Mandi Dabwali, Haryana, India
530 17 March 2000 Kanungu church fire Kanungu, Uganda
500 17 December 1961 Gran Circus Norte-Americano – Niterói circus fire Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
492 28 November 1942 Cocoanut Grove fire Boston, Massachusetts, United States
448 8 December 1881 Ringtheater fire Vienna, Austria
430 13 January 1883 Circus Ferroni fire Berdichev, Ukraine
400 17 December 1778 Coliseo theater fire Zaragoza, Spain
396 1 August 2004 Paraguay supermarket fire Asunción, Paraguay
377-470+ 19 August 1978 Cinema Rex fire Abadan, Iran
360 14 February 2012 Comayagua prison fire Comayagua, Honduras
326+ 30 June 1900 1900 Hoboken Docks fire Hoboken, New Jersey, United States
324 10 December 1994 1994 Karamay fire Karamay, China
322 21 April 1930 Ohio Penitentiary fire Columbus, Ohio, United States
322 22 May 1967 L'Innovation Department Store fire Brussels, Belgium
312 1910 Barn fire Ököritófülpös, Hungary
309 25 December 2000 Dongdu Commercial shopping center fire Luoyang, China
291 29 December 2001 Mesa Redonda fire Lima, Peru
289 28 October 1995 1995 Baku Metro fire Baku, Azerbaijan
289 11 September 2012 2012 Karachi garment factory fire Karachi, Pakistan
278+ 5 December 1876 Brooklyn Theatre fire Brooklyn, New York, United States
250 15 February 1909 Flores Theater fire Acapulco, Mexico
242 27 January 2013 Kiss nightclub fire in Santa Maria Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
234 27 November 1994 Discothèque fire Fuxin, China
225 14 July 1960 Mental hospital fire Guatemala City, Guatemala
209 23 April 1940 Rhythm Club fire Natchez, Mississippi, United States
208 6 March 1943 Hoteiza theater fire Kucchan, Japan
200 1847 Carslruhe theater fire St. Petersburg, Russia

Recreation

Amusement parks

Deaths Date Attraction Amusement park Location
28 14 February 2004 Transvaal Park (entire facility affected); the roof of the indoor water park collapsed Transvaal Park Yasenevo, Moscow, Russia[49]
15 27 June 2015 Formosa Fun Coast music stage; a dust explosion on a music stage; over 400 others injured Formosa Fun Coast Bali, New Taipei, Taiwan[50]
8 11 May 1984 Haunted Castle; a fire caused by a cigarette lighter igniting the flammable foam-rubber walls of the facility Six Flags Great Adventure Jackson Township, New Jersey, United States[51]
7 9 June 1979 Ghost Train; a fire at the park's ghost train ride caused by either faulty wiring or sabotage Luna Park Sydney Sydney, Australia[52]
7 14 August 1981 Skylab; a crane collided with the Skylab carousel; fifteen injured Hamburger Dom Hamburg, (Germany)[53][54]
6 13 August 1944 Virginia Reel; a fire at the facility; 125 injured Palisades Amusement Park Cliffside Park-Fort Lee, New Jersey, United States[55]
6 29 June 2010 Eco-Adventure Valley Space Journey; a malfunction at a rocket launch ride; ten injured OCT East Yantian District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China[56]
5 30 May 1972 Big Dipper; the roller coaster broke free from its haulage rope; thirteen injured Battersea Park Battersea, London, England[57]
5 23 June 2017 Kuzuluk Aquapark swimming pool; five people died after being electrocuted in the swimming pool Kuzuluk Aquapark Akyazi, Turkey[58]
4 24 July 1930 Big Dipper; a bolt came loose from the roller coaster; seventeen injured Krug Park Omaha, Nebraska, United States[59][60]
4 25 October 2016 Thunder River Rapids Ride; one of the rafts at the ride flipped upside down and became wedged under a conveyor belt Dreamworld Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia[61]
3 14 June 1986 Mindbender; one of the roller coaster carriages failed and crashed into a concrete pillar Galaxyland Edmonton, Alberta, Canada[62]
3 26 July 1978 Skyway; a gondola detached from its cable and plunged to the ground Six Flags St. Louis Eureka, Missouri, United States[63]

Crowd crushes

Deaths Date Incident Location
6,000 29 March 1809 Ponte das Barcas disaster in Porto. Civilians fleeing the advancing French army tried to cross the Douro river over a fragile pontoon bridge, which collapsed.[citation needed] Portugal
4,000 5 June 1941 Mass panic at air raid shelter, during Japanese bombing of Chongqing, most deaths caused by suffocation. Chongqing, China
2,400+ 24 September 2015 2015 Mina stampede en route to the Stoning of the Devil ritual Mina, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
1,426 3 July 1990 1990 Mecca tunnel tragedy inside a pedestrian tunnel Mina, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
1,389 30 May 1896 Khodynka Tragedy at coronation of Nicholas II (Moscow, 1896) Khodynka Field, Moscow, Russia
953 31 August 2005 2005 Al-Aaimmah bridge stampede (note: because the stampede was triggered by reports of a bombing, this figure is also included in the higher estimate for casualties of the War in Iraq) Baghdad, Iraq
800 3 February 1954 1954 Prayag Kumbh Mela stampede, crowd crush at religious festival Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
363 12 January 2006 2006 Hajj stampede Mina, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
357 22 November 2010 Phnom Penh stampede Phnom Penh, Cambodia
354 23 October 1942 Crowd crush during an attack by the RAF Bomber Command in World War II as they made their way into Galleria delle Grazie, a railway tunnel used as an air-raid shelter. Genoa, Italy
328 24 May 1964 Estadio Nacional disaster Lima, Peru
270 23 May 1994 1994 Hajj stampede Mina, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
258 25 January 2005 Mandher Devi temple stampede Wai, Maharashtra, India
251 1 February 2004 2004 Hajj stampede Mina, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
245 11 October 1711 Bridge stampede Lyon, France
224 30 September 2008 2008 Jodhpur stampede disaster in Chamunda Devi temple Rajasthan, India
183 16 June 1883 Victoria Hall theatre stairway crush Sunderland, England
173 3 March 1943 Bethnal Green tube station panic London, England
162 3 August 2008 Naina Devi Temple stampede Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, India
159 29 October 2022 Seoul Halloween crowd crush Seoul, South Korea
135 1 October 2022 2022 Kanjuruhan Stadium disaster Malang, East Java, Indonesia
130 23 November 1994 1994 Gowari stampede in Maharashtra State Legislature building Nagpur, Maharastra, India
124 1 January 1956 1956 Yahiko Shrine Stampede: New Year event stampede at Yahiko Shrine Yahiko, Niigata, Japan
123 9 May 2001 Accra Sports Stadium Disaster Accra, Ghana
118 9 April 1998 1998 Hajj stampede Mina, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
115 19 September 1902 Shiloh Baptist Church stampede Birmingham, Alabama
115 13 October 2013 2013 Madhya Pradesh stampede Ratangarh, India
110 11 February 1823 Carnival tragedy of 1823 Valletta, Malta
105 10 October 1991 Yingze Park lantern festival stampede Taiyuan, Shanxi, China
102 14 January 2011 2011 Sabarimala crowd crush, broken out during an annual pilgrimage Sabarimala, Kerala, India
100 20 February 2003 The Station nightclub fire, fourth-deadliest nightclub fire in U.S. history West Warwick, Rhode Island

Sporting events

Deaths Date Incident
13,000 Between 284 and 286 AD Collapse of a wall of Circus Maximus (Rome, sometime within the reign of Diocletian)[64]
1,112 140 AD Collapse of the upper tier of the Circus Maximus (Rome, 140 AD)[65]
614 26 February 1918 Happy Valley Racecourse fire (Happy Valley, Hong Kong)
328 24 May 1964 Estadio Nacional disaster (Lima, Peru)[66]
~200 20 January 1980 Collapse of wooden bleachers at Corralejas bullring, Sincelejo, Sucre, Colombia[45]
135 1 October 2022 2022 Kanjuruhan Stadium disaster (Malang, East Java, Indonesia)
127 9 May 2001 Accra Sports Stadium disaster (Accra Sports Stadium, Accra, Ghana)
97 15 April 1989 Hillsborough stadium crush (Sheffield, England)
93 12 March 1988 Hailstorm & Stadium crush (Kathmandu, Nepal)[67]
84 11 June 1955 1955 Le Mans disaster (motor racing accident) (Le Mans, France)
83 16 October 1996 Doroteo Guamuch Flores disaster (stadium crowd crush) (Guatemala City, Guatemala)
79 1 February 2012 Port Said Stadium disaster (Port Said, Egypt, 1 February 2012)
71 23 June 1968 Puerta 12 crush (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 23 June 1968)[68]
66 2 January 1971 Second Ibrox stadium disaster, stairway crowd crush (Glasgow, Scotland)
66 20 October 1982 Luzhniki disaster, stairway crowd crush on a stadium in Moscow, USSR[69]
61 1 January 2013 2013 Félix Houphouët-Boigny Stadium Disaster (Abidjan, Ivory Coast)
56 11 May 1985 Bradford City stadium fire (Bradford, England, 11 May 1985)
43 17 September 1967 Kayseri Atatürk Stadium disaster football stadium hooliganism (Kayseri, Central Anatolia, Turkey)
43 11 April 2001 Ellis Park Stadium disaster, football match crush (Johannesburg, South Africa)
42 13 January 1991 Oppenheimer Stadium disaster, football match crush (Orkney, South Africa)
39 29 May 1985 Heysel Stadium disaster football stadium hooliganism (Brussels, Belgium)
32 3 October 2014 2014 Patna stampede (Patna, Bihar, India, 3 October 2014)
33 9 March 1946 Burnden Park disaster (Bolton, England, 9 March 1946)
28 9 September 1928 1928 Italian Grand Prix, Emilio Materassi and 27 spectators killed when the driver crashed into a grandstand, (Monza, Italy)
26 5 April 1902 First Ibrox stadium disaster, terracing collapse (Glasgow, Scotland)
22–24 15 November 1982 Drunken football fans provoked a stampede at Deportivo Cali vs. América de Cali in Estadio Olímpico Pascual Guerrero, Cali, Colombia[70][71]
22 29 November 1900 Spectators on the roof of a glass factory observing the Big Game college football game caused roof to collapse (San Francisco, US)[72]
21 8 February 1981 Gate 7 stampede at the old Karaiskakis Stadium after a football game between Olympiacos and AEK Athens (Piraeus, Greece)[73]
21 22 May 2021 Gansu ultramarathon disaster 21 out of 172 runners died in windy and cold weather in a 100k mountain running race in China.[74]
19 29 March 2009 2009 Houphouët-Boigny stampede (Abidjan, Ivory Coast)
18 18 November 1981 A wall collapses at the regional stadium in Ibague, Colombia in a football match between Deportes Tolima and Deportivo Cali[70]
18 5 May 1992 Temporary grand stand collapsed, before French Cup semi-final match SC Bastia and Olympique Marseille, (Bastia, Corsica, France).[75]
17 13–14 August 1979 1979 Fastnet yachting race storms (Fastnet Rock, Ireland, 1979)
16 16 August 1980 16 Football Fans die of Stampede in a Kolkata Derby at the Eden Gardens, Kolkata. Recognized as the Football Lover's Day.[76][77]
15 10 September 1961 1961 Italian Grand Prix: Wolfgang Von Trips and 14 spectators killed when the Formula 1 car flew into the crowd (Monza, Italy)
13 12 May 1957 1957 Mille Miglia road race: driver Alfonso de Portago, his co-driver/navigator, Ed Nelson and 9 spectators was killed when they ploughed into spectators. (Guidizzolo, Mantua; Italy, 12 May 1957). Also includes 2 separate deaths earlier in the road race. (Reggio Emilia and Florence)[78][failed verification][79]
13 18 January 1953 1953 Argentine Grand Prix: F1 driver Nino Farina ploughed into the crowds, killing 13 (Autódromo Juan y Oscar Gálvez, Buenos Aires, Argentina)
13 14 September 2008 2008 Congo football riots: DRC football league second division of Socozaki vs. Nyuki System at Matokeo stadium (Butembo, North Kivu, DR Congo)
13 31 August 1952 Grenzlandring, 13 killed and 42 injured including the racing driver when his car plunged into spectators, Wegberg, Mönchengladbach, Germany
12 20 May 2023 San Salvador crowd crush: 12 killed in a crowd crush during a football match at the Estadio Cuscatlán stadium in San Salvador, El Salvador
12 2 March 1969 Yellow River Dragstrip, a dragster crashed through a chain-link fence into spectators, killing 11. 12th person died later in hospital. (Covington, Georgia, US)
12 8 August 1903 Baker Bowl bleachers collapse (Philadelphia, US)
11 16 September 1911 Auto race at New York State Fairgrounds, when a car went through a rail fence into the crowd, (Syracuse, New York, US)
11 16 September 2011 2011 Reno Air Races crash, 11 killed including pilot Jimmy Leeward who crashed into grandstand VIP booths (Reno Stead Airport, Reno, Nevada, US)

Transportation

Aviation

Deaths Date Incident Location
583 27 March 1977 Tenerife airport disaster Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain[80]
520 12 August 1985 Japan Air Lines Flight 123 Ueno, Japan[81]
349 12 November 1996 Charkhi Dadri mid-air collision Charkhi Dadri, Haryana, India[82][83]
346 3 March 1974 Turkish Airlines Flight 981 Fontaine-Chaalis, France[84]
301 19 August 1980 Saudia Flight 163 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia[85]
298 17 July 2014 Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 Hrabove, Ukraine[86]
290 3 July 1988 Iran Air Flight 655 Bandar Abbas, Iran[citation needed]
275 19 February 2003 2003 Iran Ilyushin Il-76 crash Kerman, Iran[87]
273 25 May 1979 American Airlines Flight 191 Des Plaines, Illinois, United States[88]

Cable cars

Deaths Date Incident Location
155 11 November 2000 Kaprun disaster[89] Kaprun, Austria
43 9 March 1976 1976 Cavalese cable car crash[90] Cavalese, Italy
20 3 February 1998 1998 Cavalese cable car crash[91] Cavalese, Italy
20 1 July 1999 Saint-Étienne-en-Dévoluy cable car crash[92] Saint-Étienne-en-Dévoluy, France
19 1 June 1990 Tbilisi cable car crash[93] Tbilisi, Georgia
14 3 October 1999 Maling River Gorge cable car crash[94] Xingyi, Guizhou, China
14 23 May 2021 Stresa–Mottarone cable car crash[95] Mottarone, Italy
13 12 July 1972 Bettmeralp cable car crash[96][97] Bettmeralp, Switzerland
12 29 June 2017 Charra Pani cable car crash[98] Charra Pani, Galyat, Pakistan
11 13 February 1983 Champoluc cable car crash[99] Champoluc, Italy

Elevators

Deaths Date Incident Location
104 10 May 1995 Vaal Reefs mining disaster: A locomotive crashed through a safety barrier and fell into a mine shaft, hitting an elevator which was carrying 104 workers, and causing it to plunge to the bottom of the shaft.[100][101] Orkney, South Africa
52 31 August 1987 A methane gas explosion at the St. Helena gold mine severed the cable of a double-deck elevator, causing it to fall 1.4 kilometers to the bottom of the mine shaft, killing all 52 people on board. 10 others who were not in the elevator were killed in the explosion.[102][103] Welkom, South Africa
31 27 March 1980 A descending elevator became stuck in the Vaal Reefs mine shaft and then fell to the bottom of the shaft when it abruptly became unstuck, killing all 31 miners on board.[104][105] Orkney, South Africa
19 13 September 2012 An elevator fell about 100 meters at a construction site, killing everyone on board.[106] Wuhan, China
19 10 October 1932 A mine-shaft elevator carrying 20 people fell at the Bickershaw Colliery, killing all but one person.[107][108] Leigh, England
18 30 July 1973 A mine-shaft elevator fell at the Markham Colliery.[109] Chesterfield, England
16 10 September 1918 Protection Island mining disaster: A mine-shaft elevator cable snapped causing the elevator to plunge to the bottom of the mine.[110] Protection Island near Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada
13 27 November 2023 A mine elevator fell 200m in the Impala Platinum mine shaft accident.[111][112] Rustenburg, South Africa
12 30 October 2008 An elevator plunged to the ground at a construction site.[113] Xiapu County, China
12 2 June 1993 An elevator plunged to the ground from the 20th floor at a construction site.[114] North Point, Hong Kong
11 25 April 2019 An elevator fell at a construction site due to a snapped cable.[115] Hengshui, China
11 29 July 2011 A mine-shaft elevator fell at the Bazhanov coal mine.[116] Makiivka, Ukraine
10 27 March 1964 A steel cable hit a mine-shaft elevator at the Sachsen coal mine, killing 10 workers, including 5 Turkish nationals.[117] Heeßen, West Germany
10 6 September 2014 An elevator plunged 32 stories at a construction site.[118] Istanbul, Turkey

Maritime

Deaths Date Incident
4,385 20 December 1987 MV Doña Paz (collision with the oil tanker MT Vector in the Tablas Strait, Philippines). Casualty estimates vary because of thousands of stowaways.
1,863 26 September 2002 MV Le Joola, Senegal
1,573 10 September 2011 MV Spice Islander I (Zanzibar Channel)
1,514 15 April 1912 RMS Titanic (North Atlantic)
c. 1,500 6 February 1822 Tek Sing (near the Belvidere Shoals in the South China Sea)
1,500 27 January 1949 Taiping (East China Sea)
1,168 27 April 1865 Sultana (Mississippi River)
1,159 26 September 1954 Tōya Maru (Tsugaru Strait)
1,024 29 May 1914 RMS Empress of Ireland (Saint Lawrence River)
1,021 15 June 1904 PS General Slocum (New York, United States)
1,012 3 February 2006 MS al-Salam Boccaccio 98, (Red Sea)
1,000 22 September 1912 SS Kiche Maru (off Honshu, Japan)
1,000 22 April 1916 SS Hsin-Yu (Zhoushan)
c. 1,000 3 March 1921 c. 3 March 1921 SS Hong Moh (South China Sea)
900 16 September 1927 Wusung (Kuril Islands, Empire of Japan)[119]
900 4 October 1744 c. 4 October 1744 HMS Victory (60 miles off Plymouth, England, near Black Rock)
894 21 May 1996 MV Bukoba (Lake Victoria, Tanzania)
852 28 September 1994 MS Estonia (Baltic Sea)
464–850 14 December 1991 MV Salem Express (Red Sea)
844 24 July 1915 SS Eastland (Chicago)
832 21 June 2008 MV Princess of the Stars (capsized by Typhoon Fengshen off Sibuyan Island, Philippines)
829 15 February 1760 HMS Ramillies (Devon, England)
826 22 September 1857 Lefort (Gulf of Finland)
800+ 29 August 1782 HMS Royal George (Portsmouth, England)
746 8 November 1888 SS Vaitarna (lost in cyclonic storm of coast of Saurashtra, Gujarat, India)[120]
741 12 December 1939 SS Indigirka (Sarufutsu, Japan)
737 6 May 1902 SS Camorta (Irrawaddy Delta)
736 26 November 1914 HMS Bulwark (1899) (Sheerness, England)
731 24 December 1811 HMS St George (Ringkøbing, Denmark)
702 1 January 1738 Slave trade ship Leusden (Marowijne, Suriname)
673 17 March 1800 HMS Queen Charlotte (Cabrera)
c. 640 3 September 1878 SS Princess Alice and SS Bywell Castle (River Thames)
644 2 September 1819 San Telmo (Drake Passage, Antarctica)
627 28 June 1904 SS Norge (Rockall)
625 17 July 1947 SS Ramdas (1947 Ramdas Ship Disaster, off Bombay, India)
608 29 October 1955 Novorossiysk (Sevastopol)
600+ 24 December 1811 List of vessels lost on the Haak Sand on 24 December 1811
600+ 3 September 1691 HMS Coronation (West of Penlee Point, Rame, England)
600 16 September 1782 c. 16 September 1782 – c. 17 September 1782 HMS Glorieux (Newfoundland, Canada)
600 25 May 1986 1986 Bangladesh MV Shamia ferry incident (Meghna River, southern Barisa, Bangladesh)
583 24 December 1811 HMS Defence (Jutland. Denmark)
580 27 January 1981 Indonesian passenger ship Tampomas II (caught fire and sank in Java Sea)
575 9 January 1920 SS Afrique (Bay of Biscay)
570 22 December 1810 HMS Minotaur (off Texel, Netherlands)
565 4 July 1898 SS La Bourgogne (Sable Island, Nova Scotia)
564 17 March 1891 SS Utopia (Bay of Gibraltar)
558 5 March 1916 SS Principe de Asturias (off Brazil)
550 29 June 2000 Cahaya Bahari (off Sulawesi, Indonesia)[121][122]
546 1 April 1873 RMS Atlantic (Nova Scotia)
533 18 September 1890 Ertuğrul (Kushimoto, Japan)
528 8 July 2003 MV Nasrin-1 (Chandpur, Bangladesh)
520 14 April 1749 HMS Namur (Tamil Nadu, India)
500 1 April 1794 c. 1 April 1794 HMS Ardent (Villefranche-sur-Mer, France)
500–700 16 February 1993 Ferry Neptune
500–600 25 May 1986 1986 Bangladesh MV Shamia ferry incident (Meghna River, Bangladesh)
500 29 January 1986 Atlas Star (Dhaleswar River, Munshiganj, Bangladesh)[123][124]

Rail

Deaths Date Incident Location
900–1,700+ 26 December 2004 2004 Sri Lanka tsunami train wreck Sri Lanka
600–1,000 13 January 1917 Ciurea rail disaster Romania
675–800 12 December 1917 Saint-Michel-de-Maurienne derailment France
235–800 6 June 1981 Bihar train derailment[125][126] Bihar, India
600–700 24 January 1944 Vereshchyovka train disaster Vereshchyovka, Soviet Union
600+ 22 January 1915 Guadalajara train disaster[127] Mexico
575 4 June 1989 Ufa train disaster Ufa ,Soviet Union
521–600+ 3 March 1944 Balvano train disaster Italy
428 13 January 1985 Awash rail disaster Awash, Afar, Ethiopia
383+ 20 February 2002 Al Ayatt train disaster Egypt
370 27 December 1944 Stará Kremnička derailment[128] Stará Kremnička, Slovakia
360 9 July 1981 1981 Chengdu-Kunming rail crash Ganluo County, China
358 20 August 1995 Firozabad rail disaster Firozabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
338 29 April 1997 Rongjiawan train disaster [zh] Rongjiawan, Hunan, China
320 18 February 2004 Nishapur train disaster Iran
307 4 January 1990 Sukkur rail disaster Sangi, Sindh, Pakistan
300 7 January 1918 Changsha rail disaster [de] Changsha, China
300~ 21 June 1915 Monte Morelas[129] Mexico
300 22 September 1994 Tolunda rail disaster [de][130] Angola
300 29 September 1957 Gambar train crash[131] Montgomery, Punjab, Pakistan
296 2 June 2023 Odisha train collision[132] Bahanaga, Baleshwar, Odisha, India
289 28 October 1995 Baku Metro fire Baku, Azerbaijan
285 2 August 1999 Gaisal train disaster Gaisal, West Bengal, India
281 24 June 2002 Igandu train disaster Tanzania
278 22 December 1939 Genthin rail disaster Genthin, Germany
248 14 March 1926 El Virilla train accident[133] Costa Rica
230 23 December 1933 Lagny-Pomponne Railroad Disaster France
226 22 May 1915 Quintinshill rail crash Scotland
212 26 November 1998 Khanna rail disaster Khanna, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
208 4 October 1972 Saltillo, Coahuila Mexico
207 28 July 1948 BASF tank car explosion [de] Ludwigshafen, Germany
160–200 17 March 1982 Bau Ca train wreck [vi] Dong Nai, Vietnam

Road

Deaths Date Incident Location
230 2 July 2010 Sange road tanker explosion[134] Sange, South Kivu, DRC
219 25 June 2017 Bahawalpur explosion[135] Bahawalpur, Pakistan
217 11 July 1978 Los Alfaques disaster[136] Tarragona, Spain
207 15 February 1991 Thung Maphrao truck explosion[137] Thung Maphrao, Phang Nga, Thailand
206 17 September 2015 2015 Juba tanker explosion [21] Juba, South Sudan
168–3,000 3 November 1982 Salang Tunnel fire[136][138] Salang Pass, Hindu Kush, Afghanistan
151 5 November 2021 Freetown fuel tanker explosion Freetown, Sierra Leone
125 6 December 1965 Sotouba truck collision[136] Sotouba, Togo
121 12 July 2012 Okobie road tanker explosion[139] Okobie, Nigeria
115 17 November 2016 Caphiridzange tanker explosion [140] Caphiridzange, Mozambique
113 31 January 2009 Molo road tanker fire Molo, Kenya, Kenya
110 12 March 1995 Tamil Nadu truck collision[141] Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu, India
104 18 August 1968 Gero bus crash[136] Gero, Gifu, Japan
100–200 5 November 2000 Ibadan road tanker explosion[142] Ibadan, Lagos, Nigeria
100+ 10 August 2019 Morogoro fuel tanker explosion[143] Morogoro, Tanzania
98 28 March 2007 Kagarko truck explosion Kagarko, Kaduna, Nigeria
96 12 July 1992 Machakos bus crash[144] Machakos, Kenya
94 8 June 1999 Karnataka bus crash[145] Karnataka, India
90 15 November 1976 Mafeteng bus crash Mafeteng, Lesotho
90 29 June 1980 Kashmir bus crash[136] Kashmir, India
90 24 June 2004 Zahedan bus crash[146] Zahedan, Iran
90+ 14 December 2021 Cap-Haïtien tanker explosion[147] Cap-Haïtien, Haiti
81–115 6 January 1967 Cavite bus crash[148] Cavite, Philippines

Space

Deaths Date Incident
54-300 24 October 1960 Nedelin catastrophe, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakh SSR, Soviet Union - occurred on ground before launch
48 18 March 1980 1980 Plesetsk launch pad disaster, Plesetsk Cosmodrome, Mirny, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Soviet Union - occurred on ground before launch
21 22 August 2003 2003 Alcântara VLS accident, Alcântara, Brazil – occurred on ground before launch
7 28 January 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, crashed over Florida, U.S.
7 1 February 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, crashed over Texas and Louisiana, U.S.
6+ 15 February 1996 Intelsat 708, Xichang Satellite Launch Center, Sichuan, China, Launch vehicle veered off course immediately after liftoff and struck a nearby village, officially killing at least six people (although other estimates put the death count higher).
3 27 January 1967 Apollo 1, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Cape Canaveral, FL, U.S. – occurred on ground during a "plugs out" test.
3 30 June 1971 Soyuz 11, depressurized in space; only deaths in space as of 2024
1 24 April 1967 Soyuz 1, southeast of Orenburg, Russia
1 15 November 1967 X-15 Flight 191, near Edwards AFB, California, U.S.
1 31 October 2014 VSS Enterprise crash, suborbital, Mojave Desert, California, U.S.

Other

Smog

Deaths Date Incident
12,000 5–9 December 1952 The Great Smog of London (5–9 December 1952). Delayed fatalities rise from 10,000 to 12,000.[149]
2,200 1880 Coal smog (London, 1880).[150]
1,000 December 1956 1956 London smog.[151]
780 December 1873 1873 London smog[152]
779 December 1892 1892 London smog[153]
700–800 December 1948 1948 London smog[153]
300–405 January–February 1963 1963 New York City smog
300–400 December 1962 1962 London smog[151]
220–240 November 1953 1953 New York City smog
168 23–25 November 1966 1966 New York City smog
160 12–15 December 1991 Smog (London, 12–15 December 1991)[154]

See also

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